cirrhosis liver – Rogalevich http://rogalevich.org/ Sat, 26 Mar 2022 12:36:29 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://rogalevich.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-120x120.png cirrhosis liver – Rogalevich http://rogalevich.org/ 32 32 Down on Liver Health https://rogalevich.org/down-on-liver-health/ Fri, 18 Mar 2022 10:10:00 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/down-on-liver-health/ You probably know a lot about the heart and brain, but you might be surprised by these facts about another equally crucial organ. Your liver performs 500 vital functions to keep us alive. It processes what we eat, drink, breathe and put on our skin. It cleans our blood, keeps our glucose, hormones, cholesterol, vitamins […]]]>

You probably know a lot about the heart and brain, but you might be surprised by these facts about another equally crucial organ.

Your liver performs 500 vital functions to keep us alive.

It processes what we eat, drink, breathe and put on our skin. It cleans our blood, keeps our glucose, hormones, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals at the right levels, and produces bile to rid the body of toxins and aid in digestion.

The liver also helps fight infections and gives us energy. Impressive, huh?

Liver disease is on the rise.

Compared to other major illnesses, such as heart disease and cancer, deaths from liver disease have soared, rising 400% since 1970. Most cases are preventable, according to the British Liver Trust.

Liver disease isn’t just caused by drinking.

The fact that many people associate liver disease with alcoholism has led to stigma. But, in fact, one in five people drink in a way that could harm them.

In fact, in addition to regularly drinking too much alcohol, the main causes are obesity and viral hepatitis.

There are at least 100 forms of liver disease in the UK.

Some of the most common are alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (caused by being significantly overweight, which can lead to fatty buildup around the liver), hepatitis (there are several different types) and hepatic steatosis. Cancer.

Most cases of liver cancer occur in people who already have liver disease.

Whatever the initial cause of the disease, inflammation leading to scar tissue is the end result.

This buildup of scar tissue is called cirrhosis. Liver cancer is more common in people with cirrhosis.

What is good for the heart is good for the liver.

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent liver disease, including following recommended guidelines. There is evidence that losing ten percent of your body weight can improve liver function in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Vaccines are available against hepatitis A, which is often contracted through contaminated food or drink, or against hepatitis B, which can be transmitted through unprotected sex or injection drug use.

Read more: 8 Hacks for a Happier Life

Read more: 4 great exercises for fibromyalgia

Follow the best stories from Reader’s Digest by subscribing to our weekly newsletter

]]>
Mice experiments reveal females produce more than one protein that helps prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease https://rogalevich.org/mice-experiments-reveal-females-produce-more-than-one-protein-that-helps-prevent-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/ Thu, 17 Mar 2022 16:49:32 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/mice-experiments-reveal-females-produce-more-than-one-protein-that-helps-prevent-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/ One of the most common disorders in the world, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Its progressive form, called “non-alcoholic steatohepatitis” (NASH), affects around 30% of all NAFLD patients, and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Despite numerous research efforts, we still do not understand the […]]]>

One of the most common disorders in the world, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Its progressive form, called “non-alcoholic steatohepatitis” (NASH), affects around 30% of all NAFLD patients, and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Despite numerous research efforts, we still do not understand the underlying mechanisms of NAFLD/NASH and therefore lack an effective treatment.

One thing we do know, however, is that it seems to be more common in men than in women, especially premenopausal women. Why this is so is not entirely clear, but current evidence suggests that estrogen, a sex hormone, plays a protective role. On the other hand, the formyl-peptide protein receptor 2 (FPR2) is known to play an important role in mediating inflammatory responses in several organs. However, no studies to date have determined its role in the liver. Could FPR2 be implicated in sex-related differences in NAFLD prevalence and severity?

Addressing this question, a research team led by Prof. Youngmi Jung from Pusan ​​National University, Korea, recently conducted a study using a mouse model, shedding light on the role of FPR2 in NAFLD/NASH and its relationship to observed sex-based differences. This work is among the very few studies of NAFLD that rely on gender-balanced animal experiments rather than the more common male-only designs. This article was posted on January 31, 2022 and was published in Volume 13, Number 578, of the journal Nature Communication on January 31, 2022.

The researchers first found that Fpr2 was highly expressed in the healthy liver of female mice. Moreover, it was expressed differently in the liver of male and female mice fed a special NAFLD-inducing diet. Silence the Fpr2 The gene made male and female mice equally vulnerable to NAFLD, suggesting that FPR2 has a protective effect on the liver.

Interestingly, the researchers also found that the production of FPR2 in the liver is mediated by estrogen. Males supplemented with external estrogen produced more Fpr2 and were more resistant to NAFLD, while females whose ovaries had been removed had reduced liver Fpr2 levels. “Taken together, our results suggest that FPR2 is a potential therapeutic target for the development of pharmacological agents to treat NAFLD/NASH,” says Professor Jung. “Furthermore, our results could aid in the development of gender-based therapies for NASH.”

This unprecedented discovery of female-specific FPR2 production in the liver and its role in NAFLD/NASH resistance will hopefully pave the way not only for new treatments, but also for a more comprehensive and gender sensitive during scientific research. In this regard, Professor Jung remarks: “Our research highlights the pressing need to design and develop better gender-balanced animal experiments, given that sex-specific expression of FPR2 in the liver had been completely overlooked. in previous studies.

Hopefully this marks the beginning of a deeper understanding of NAFLD/NASH and the first steps towards effective sex-based therapies.

Source of the story:

Materials provided by Pusan ​​National University. Original written by Na-hyun Lee. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

]]>
This Is What Liver Cancer Looks Like, Doctors Say – Eat This, Not That https://rogalevich.org/this-is-what-liver-cancer-looks-like-doctors-say-eat-this-not-that/ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 14:15:23 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/this-is-what-liver-cancer-looks-like-doctors-say-eat-this-not-that/ According to the CDC, liver cancer kills 18,600 men and 9,000 women in the United States each year. Although the early stages of liver cancer usually have few symptoms, there are some warning signs of liver cancer that you should never ignore. “In its early stages, liver cancer may have no visible or felt symptoms. […]]]>

According to the CDC, liver cancer kills 18,600 men and 9,000 women in the United States each year. Although the early stages of liver cancer usually have few symptoms, there are some warning signs of liver cancer that you should never ignore. “In its early stages, liver cancer may have no visible or felt symptoms. However, as the cancer grows, people may notice one or more of these common symptoms. It is important to remember that these symptoms can also be caused by other health conditions. If you have any of these symptoms, talk to your doctor,” explains the CDC. Read on and to ensure your health and the health of others, don’t miss these Sure signs you’ve already had COVID.

Shutterstock

“Because the liver plays such a key role in the digestive system, cirrhosis and liver cancer can both cause you to lose your appetite and cause you to lose weight,” explains the NSW Cancer Council. “Chemotherapy, radiation and other cancer treatments can also have an impact, especially if you experience side effects such as nausea and vomiting, mouth ulcers and changes in taste and smell.”

Patient with jaundice with yellowish discoloration of the skin compared to normal skin color.
Shutterstock

Jaundice is yellowing of the skin and eyes resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood, due to obstruction of the bile ducts connecting the pancreas to the liver. “It’s one of the first symptoms a patient may notice,” says Jason A. Castellanos, MD, MS, a surgical oncologist at Fox Chase Cancer Center. “The bottom line is that identifying the cause of jaundice early is crucial.”

​​

woman in jeans jacket and pants itchy arm
Shutterstock / Josep Suria

Itchy skin – or pruritus – is often linked to jaundice and a common symptom of liver cancer. “Pruritus is a common comorbidity in chronic liver disease and kidney disease,” according to an article published in the journal Scientific reports. “These patients frequently complain of pruritus despite the absence of rash or skin signs. Patients with chronic liver disease develop systemic itching that significantly impairs activity and sleep. Often this is not not relieved by scratching the itchy areas of the skin. Patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) frequently experience pruritus in chronic liver disease.”

RELATED: Here’s how to feel like you’re 20 again, doctors say

young woman with nausea in denim outfit sitting on the bed
Shutterstock / New Africa

Nausea is frequently linked to liver cancer, usually in association with other symptoms. “Symptoms of liver cancer may differ slightly, depending on the type of tumor you have,” explains Stanford Healthcare. “Please remember that other conditions can cause similar symptoms, so it’s important to see an experienced doctor for an accurate diagnosis.”

RELATED: Most People Get Belly Fat This Way, Experts Say

Young woman suffering from pain in bedroom
Shutterstock

Abdominal pain – or constant right shoulder pain – could be a symptom of liver cancer. “You should never ignore liver pain,” warns Carolina Digestive Health Associates. “It’s not something that has a benign cause, like stomach cramps when you have the stomach flu or a headache when you have a cold. If you have distinct pain in the liver area, you should see a doctor immediately.”

RELATED: Dr. Fauci just gave this essential virus update

Portrait of confident doctor in private clinic
iStock

If you have any or all of these symptoms, talk to your healthcare provider as soon as possible to rule out any potential problems. Also, in general, the CDC says:

  • “Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount you drink. For women, that means no more than one drink a day. For men, that means no more than two drinks a day.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, try to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, reduce the number of calories you eat each day and increase the amount of exercise you do. Try to lose weight slowly – 1 or 2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kilogram) every week.”
]]>
High Fructose Intake May Trigger Fatty Liver Disease https://rogalevich.org/high-fructose-intake-may-trigger-fatty-liver-disease/ Mon, 07 Mar 2022 18:40:15 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/high-fructose-intake-may-trigger-fatty-liver-disease/ Adding high fructose beverages to a diet that already includes a high fat content may accelerate the risk of foie gras disease, according to scientists from the University of Barcelona. What there is to know: High Fructose Intake May Increase Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseasein which too much fat is stored in liver cells. […]]]>

Adding high fructose beverages to a diet that already includes a high fat content may accelerate the risk of foie gras disease, according to scientists from the University of Barcelona.

What there is to know:

  • High Fructose Intake May Increase Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseasein which too much fat is stored in liver cells.

  • High fructose corn syrup is one of the most common sweeteners in the food industry and is used for sweeten many products despite scientific evidence that it is associated with metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  • The researchers found that consumption a diet high in fructose for long periods of time may result in deterioration of the layer of cells that creates the intestinal barrier that prevents bacteria and toxins from entering the bloodstream and affecting the liver.

  • Fatty liver disease can lead to liver inflammation and liver damage, resulting in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, one more aggressive disease which in turn can evolve into scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), liver cancerand liver failure.

  • Severe fatty liver disease and liver tumors deterioration of the intestinal barrier created by excessive consumption of fructose can be avoided with medications.

This is a summary of the article, “A New Study Relates Liquid Fructose Intake to Fatty Liver Disease“, published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research on March 4, 2022. The full article can be found at newswise.com.

For more information, follow Medscape on Facebook, Twitter, instagramand YouTube.

]]>
Fatty liver disease: four signs of the disease explained https://rogalevich.org/fatty-liver-disease-four-signs-of-the-disease-explained/ Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:08:11 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/fatty-liver-disease-four-signs-of-the-disease-explained/ Warning signs that suggest you are at risk of developing fatty liver disease. Accumulation of fat in the liver can cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition seen in overweight or obese people. NAFLD is not caused by alcohol, but if left untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis resembling liver damage caused by excessive […]]]>

Warning signs that suggest you are at risk of developing fatty liver disease.

Accumulation of fat in the liver can cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition seen in overweight or obese people.

NAFLD is not caused by alcohol, but if left untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis resembling liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

However, foods and drinks containing alcohol or sugar can make the situation worse, so it is advisable to limit their consumption.

NAFLD is the most common liver disease in the world.

More than 90% of obese people, 60% of diabetics and 20% of people with a healthy weight suffer from this disease.

The human liver normally contains some fat, but when fat exceeds 5% of liver weight, fatty liver can develop.

In the early stages, NAFLD usually has no symptoms, but it can be detected by a liver function test from the blood sample.

The warning signs appear when it progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or fibrosis in which the liver has become inflamed.

A person with NASH may experience:

  1. extremely tired,
  2. tiredness,
  3. pain in the upper right of the belly on the lower right side of the ribs,
  4. and lose weight for no reason.

Prolonged fibrosis and persistent inflammation will cause cirrhosis where the liver is severely scarred and damaged.

Permanent damage can lead to liver cancer, liver failure, and ultimately death.

Symptoms of cirrhosis can include:

  • itchy skin,
  • edema (swelling of the legs or stomach),
  • and jaundice (the skin and the whites of the eyes turn yellow).

We don’t know how mild fatty liver disease develops into serious disease such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

To understand the process, the researchers performed a genetic analysis of hepatocytes, the main functional cells of the liver.

Professor Stephan Herzig, co-author of the study, said:

“Understanding the mechanism by which this condition becomes fatal is essential in our quest to find therapeutic solutions and preventive measures.”

The research team developed a method targeting particular nodes of the protein network to halt disease progression or even prevent fibrosis.

A network of proteins called “transcription factors” is involved in the process of hepatocyte reprogramming.

Failure of the process could lead to dysfunction of hepatocyte cells.

For example, during the development of NASH, hepatocyte cells lose their identity.

Dr Ana Alfaro, the first author of the study, said:

“These findings are important because they unravel the cellular mechanisms underlying non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Knowing the role of protein networks and the loss of hepatocyte identity gives us potential intervention targets for the development of effective therapies.

The study was published in the journal Cell metabolism (Loft et al., 2021).

]]>
Being Well Is Easier Than You Think • Coral Springs Talk https://rogalevich.org/being-well-is-easier-than-you-think-coral-springs-talk/ Wed, 02 Mar 2022 20:04:50 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/being-well-is-easier-than-you-think-coral-springs-talk/ Shawnette Sadler, MD By Diana Hanford Age is more than a number. It is a leading indicator of health conditions that could determine whether patients are at risk for debilitating or life-threatening illnesses. “As we age, our bodies gradually change,” said Shawnette Saddler, MD, an internal medicine physician with the Broward Health Physician Group. She […]]]>

Shawnette Sadler, MD

By Diana Hanford

Age is more than a number. It is a leading indicator of health conditions that could determine whether patients are at risk for debilitating or life-threatening illnesses.

“As we age, our bodies gradually change,” said Shawnette Saddler, MD, an internal medicine physician with the Broward Health Physician Group. She stressed the importance of seeing a health care provider regularly and following recommended health screenings and exams.

“When we hit 40, it’s a good idea to look under the hood and check the engine light, especially if you haven’t had regular physicals,” she said. “During an annual physical, a primary care physician will perform a physical assessment, order a blood test, and most importantly, have a meaningful conversation.”

Annual screenings can help you maintain a healthy lifestyle, make adjustments to improve your health, and in some cases lead to early diagnoses, which can mean better outcomes. And often, Dr. Saddler said, we’ve gotten so used to certain symptoms that we no longer recognize it’s something your doctor should be treating.

Run for Beigel

“Communication is key,” said Dr. Saddler, who also practices at Broward Health Coral Springs. “It’s human nature to adapt to problems and move on. Many patients become accustomed to suffering from aches, pains, and hearing or vision loss, believing that they are the realities of aging. However, these conditions can also be a sign of a more serious problem. By discussing what you are really feeling, we as doctors can help determine what is or is not normal and refer a patient to a specialist for conclusive testing if necessary.

Types of screenings

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all adults 18 and older get tested for at least one hepatitis C virus in their lifetime, a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) . Chronic HCV infection has no obvious symptoms but can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The good news is that hepatitis C can be treated with medication and can even be cured.

There are annual screenings for women, and Dr. Saddler encourages prioritizing annual mammograms and Pap smears based on health care provider recommendations. Postponing annual screenings, even for a year or two, greatly increases the risk of a delayed or missed diagnosis. This is especially true for cancer, in which early detection improves survival rates.

Another significant change affecting both men and women is the new recommended age for colon cancer screenings, which has been lowered to 45, according to the US Preventive Services Task Force, an independent voluntary group of experts. in prevention and evidence-based medicine.

Risk factors

Dr. Saddler acknowledges that many older patients don’t know their family’s medical history or don’t share known hereditary risks with their doctor and family, such as heart disease and high blood pressure.

Generations of Americans are eating more processed fast foods. As people age, their hormones change and their metabolism slows down, which increases risk factors. This is also why early detection and prevention are so important.

“We emphasize that the road to optimal long-term health begins with good habits at home, but must also be complemented by the guidance of a healthcare professional,” said Dr. Saddler. “Set a good example for your children by incorporating a healthy lifestyle that the whole family can build on. It can be as simple as cooking meals at home, limiting screen time, and participating in outdoor activities.

A short guide to maintaining your health and well-being:

  • Know your baseline blood counts.
  • Drink water, four to six 8oz cups is the daily recommendation.
  • Get at least 200 minutes of exercise per week.
  • Sleep seven hours every night.
  • Prioritize self-care to decompress.
  • If you are sedentary, get up every 30 minutes and stretch.
  • Monitor and share what you eat.
  • Be aware of the symptoms of depression, as poor mental health affects our physical well-being.

“There’s no better time than the present to prioritize your well-being,” Dr. Saddler said. “We want to provide patients with the help they need so they can thrive and live healthy, happy lives.”

To learn more about how to improve your health and well-being, visit BrowardHealth.org/Wellness.

Send your news to Coral Springs #1 award-winning news site Right here.

]]>
Spots on palms could be a sign of liver cancer: doctor https://rogalevich.org/spots-on-palms-could-be-a-sign-of-liver-cancer-doctor/ Mon, 28 Feb 2022 16:00:00 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/spots-on-palms-could-be-a-sign-of-liver-cancer-doctor/ By Chen Chien-chih and Jonathan Chin / Journalist, with an editor Red spots on the palm of the hand could be a sign of liver cancer, a Taichung-based doctor said on Thursday. Liver cancer is rarely detected in the early stages when medical intervention is most likely to be successful, said Chen Cheng-kuo (陳政國), a […]]]>
  • By Chen Chien-chih and Jonathan Chin / Journalist, with an editor

Red spots on the palm of the hand could be a sign of liver cancer, a Taichung-based doctor said on Thursday.

Liver cancer is rarely detected in the early stages when medical intervention is most likely to be successful, said Chen Cheng-kuo (陳政國), a gastroenterologist at Asia University Hospital.

This is because the liver lacks pain receptors, making it necessary to look for other symptoms to detect the disease, he said.

Photo: Chen Chien-chih, Taipei Times

Symptoms include “liver palms,” which refer to red patches or spots at the base of the thumb, spidery lines of inflamed capillaries that radiate from blemishes on the chest or in the extremities, and jaundice, a- he declared.

Varicose veins on the abdomen and swelling in the hands and feet are also signs of liver disease, including cancer, Chen said.

Citing an example, he said a 64-year-old woman nicknamed Chao (趙) was recently taken to hospital by her daughter who suspected her mother might have cancer after seeing red spots on Chao’s palms. .

Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging detected a liver tumor, which was surgically removed, he said, adding that the woman is now recovering.

People with hepatitis B or C should be checked regularly, as the disease is closely linked to cirrhosis and liver cancer, Chen said.

A 1cm liver tumor can triple in size in four to six months and metastasize within a year, he said.

This means people with hepatitis B or C should be screened every four to six months, he added.

Comments will be moderated. Keep comments relevant to the article. Remarks containing abusive and obscene language, personal attacks of any kind or promotion will be removed and the user banned. The final decision will be at the discretion of The Taipei Times.

]]>
Liver Disease: Stages, Symptoms, Lifestyle Changes to Adapt and Prevent It | Health https://rogalevich.org/liver-disease-stages-symptoms-lifestyle-changes-to-adapt-and-prevent-it-health/ Mon, 28 Feb 2022 07:54:06 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/liver-disease-stages-symptoms-lifestyle-changes-to-adapt-and-prevent-it-health/ In addition to removing toxins and other chemical wastes from the blood, the liver is also responsible for continuously filtering the blood circulating through the body and converting nutrients and drugs absorbed through the digestive tract into chemicals ready for use. ‘use. The liver is one of the largest and most extraordinary organs in the […]]]>

In addition to removing toxins and other chemical wastes from the blood, the liver is also responsible for continuously filtering the blood circulating through the body and converting nutrients and drugs absorbed through the digestive tract into chemicals ready for use. ‘use. The liver is one of the largest and most extraordinary organs in the body because it is a super organ that performs countless health functions while all other organs have specific or limited functions.

So far, more than 500 functions have been attributed to the liver, and scientists say more may be discovered over time. The most important function of the liver is the processing of everything we consume, be it food, alcohol, drugs or poisons and the liver is damaged by all the toxins we consume. Blood infections also reach the liver and inflict damage while many other disease processes, inflammations and diseases including cancer in other organs also target the liver.

Symptoms:

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Dr. Gaurav Chaubal, Program Director of Liver, Pancreas and Bowel Transplantation and HPB Surgery at Global Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, listed the possible symptoms one should not never avoid. They understand:

1. Yellowing of the skin and eyeballs (jaundice)

2. Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen.

3. Abdominal swelling (ascites)

4. Nausea.

5. A general feeling of unease (malaise)

6. Disorientation or confusion. (hepatic encephalopathy)

7. Drowsiness.

5 stages of liver disease:

Explaining that fatty liver disease is an accumulation of fat in the liver that can damage the liver and gradually progress to liver failure, Dr. Sulaiman Ladhani, Consultant Doctor of Thoracology and MD Chest and Tuberculosis at Masina Hospital, Byculla, Mumbai, explained: “It can be due to either excessive alcohol consumption or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. It mainly occurs in overweight or obese people. Diabetic patients are at greater risk of having fatty liver disease.

He added: “Fatty liver is the result of abnormal merabolism and excess calories, fat taken in from food which is transported to the liver and eventually stored in the liver as fat. There are no symptoms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is why it is called a silent disease. It is usually identified by coincidence during an ultrasound or a fibroscan.

Dr. Sulaiman Ladhani and Dr. Gaurav Chaubal talked about the different stages of liver disease or fatty liver disease. They are:

Stage 1. Simple foie gras – This happens when the liver begins to accumulate fat. There is no inflammation or scarring in the liver at this stage. There are no symptoms in the early stage. Thus, many people are unaware that they have a fatty liver. For many people, fatty liver disease does not progress with an unhealthy liver. With a healthy diet and regular physical activity, excess fat in the liver can be reduced. It is observed that about 10 to 20% of people with this simple fatty liver disease will go on to the next stage.

Stage 2: Inflammation – Hepatitis steato occurs when the accumulation of fat in liver cells is accompanied by a certain amount of inflammation. It affects approximately 5% of the population. If the amount of damaged tissue increases, the liver may eventually struggle to repair it fast enough. During this phase, ongoing damage to liver cells from a number of agents and diseases causes the liver to enlarge, and the person experiences abdominal pain in the upper right corner. During this stage, the condition may be treatable. However, in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there may not be significant symptoms.

Stage 3: Fibrosis/Scarring – If the inflammation seen in Stage 1 is not controlled, liver tissue slowly begins to heal and scarred tissue begins to replace healthy liver tissue. The condition is called fibrosis. Here there is persistent scar tissue in the liver and in the blood vessels around the liver. The liver can still function quite well at this stage, and removing or treating the cause of the inflammation can prevent further progression or reverse some of the damage. However, if scar tissue begins to replace much of the normal tissue, liver function gradually begins to be affected. During this phase, proper medications and lifestyle changes can reverse the condition to some degree.

Stage 4: Cirrhosis of the liver – At this point the healing is complete and there is no possibility of the liver healing itself now. At this point the liver stops working properly and symptoms include jaundice where the eyes and fingernails start to turn yellow, a dull ache in the lower part of the ribs, or abdominal distension due to fluid buildup in the belly. The person begins to lose appetite, weight loss occurs, and other organs may be affected such as the kidneys, brain, and heart. Scar tissue in cirrhosis is difficult to remove, although further progression can be halted if the positive agent is removed. Most people have an early stage of the disease which is simple fatty liver disease or steato. Only a small number move on to the next steps.

Stage 5: End-stage liver disease (ESLD) – Liver failure is of 2 types – acute liver failure occurs quickly with a duration of 48-72 hours and is usually caused by reasons other than alcohol, while chronic liver failure takes a long time to develop. happen and is often caused by alcohol abuse, uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension or obesity. Other more common reasons are viral hepatitis, autoimmune diseases and certain metabolic diseases. Cognitive or mental health is also affected and the person often feels confused or disoriented. ESLD is usually fatal.

Stage 6: Liver cancerThis results in liver cancer which can occur at any time in the liver and for reasons other than liver disease (primary liver cancer). It can also develop during any of the 4 stages above and is not necessarily the last in the sequence. Just like ESLD, liver cancer is also fatal unless the tumor is removed, resected, or a liver transplant is performed.

Everything you need to know about liver transplantation:

Dr Gaurav Chaubal said: “Overall, a liver transplant is needed in three scenarios. First, when cirrhosis of the liver progresses and symptoms worsen despite medical treatment. Second, when other organs also begin to be involved due to cirrhosis, namely the brain, kidneys, and coagulation. Third, when liver cancer develops against the background of cirrhosis of the liver.

Dr. Akash Shukla, Director of Hepatology at Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital, revealed that after liver transplantation, there are 3 things that can affect long-term results and therefore need to be taken care of. He pointed out: “First, the drugs used to prevent rejection and make sure the body accepts the liver, these are called immunosuppressive drugs, initially there are 3 drugs and they gradually reduce to one drug per day beyond 1 year from transplant, but this one pill should be continued indefinitely. There is no restriction on how long the new liver will last, if proper medications are taken. It can last a very long time.”

He added: ‘The second important precaution a person should take is to prevent infection. The risk of infection is highest during the first 3 months, and during this period one should avoid unnecessary contact with people, live in a hygienic environment and eat well-cooked or very clean food. However, there is no need for complete isolation, and normal life activities can be continued, beyond 3 months the risk of infection drops significantly and is generally not a problem unless there is major exposure to infectious microbes.

The third point to consider, according to Dr. Akash Shukla, is to take care of the other organs of the body. He pointed out, “Although the liver is doing very well, in the long term we need to take care of other organs in the body and important metabolic fictions like controlling diabetes, blood pressure and ischemic heart disease by changing the mode living in a healthy lifestyle. lifestyle and nutritious diet. In addition, we must be extremely vigilant about the development of cancers in people who have received an organ transplant and for this, a regular visit to the doctor and screening for cancers, in particular head and neck cancers and skin cancers, are extremely important for the longevity of people after transplants.

Tips for preventing liver disease:

According to Dr. Sulaiman Ladhani, all stages of the liver are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease such as heart attack and stroke before liver failure occurs. Therefore, maintaining a healthy diet and limiting sugar intake, quitting smoking and alcohol consumption, and exercising will help in the long run.

He advised: “Vitamin E is useful in preventing further progression. It is very important to have more clarity on this subject. Diet modification and calorie reduction, avoiding fast foods, carbonated drinks and heavy meals should be done. Having healthy meals and increasing the physical movement of the body as advised by the doctor is imperative. Regular liver tests and appropriate medications are essential. The progression of the disease is slow, therefore, the lifestyle is managed with proper diet as this can help prevent the disease from progressing further.

Echoing the same, Dr Gaurav Chaubal suggested: “Making small changes to your lifestyle and eating habits, such as – starting your day off right by eating a healthy breakfast, reducing salt and fat intake, avoiding too many processed or junk foods, detoxifying your system by taking plenty of fluids, indulging in healthy snacks including plenty of fruits and vegetables in your diet, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and daily exercise are some of the ways to prevent liver disease.

]]>
Should I get tested for COVID-19 if I have a sore throat? https://rogalevich.org/should-i-get-tested-for-covid-19-if-i-have-a-sore-throat/ Thu, 24 Feb 2022 04:52:28 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/should-i-get-tested-for-covid-19-if-i-have-a-sore-throat/ What are the potential complications of COVID-19? About 80% of people infected with COVID-19 experience mild to moderate symptoms and can recover without requiring hospitalization. However, about 15% become seriously ill and need oxygen. About 5% become seriously ill and require immediate medical attention. COVID-19 has the potential to cause health complications and even death […]]]>

What are the potential complications of COVID-19?

About 80% of people infected with COVID-19 experience mild to moderate symptoms and can recover without requiring hospitalization. However, about 15% become seriously ill and need oxygen. About 5% become seriously ill and require immediate medical attention.

COVID-19 has the potential to cause health complications and even death in susceptible people. Complications include:

Older adults and those with the following conditions are at higher risk of complications from COVID-19:

Which organs can be damaged by COVID-19?

Lungs

COVID-19 can cause lung problems such as pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases.

Pneumonia: Pneumonia causes the lungs to swell and fill with fluid. This can lead to breathing difficulties, which can become so severe that hospitalization, oxygen therapy, and monitoring of oxygen saturation may be required. While most people recover from pneumonia without any long-term consequences, pneumonia caused by COVID-19 can be quite dangerous. Even after the infection clears, damage to the lungs can cause breathing problems that last for months, leading to further complications.

Acute respiratory distress: ARDS is a condition in which excess fluid builds up in the small air sacs of the lungs, causing blood oxygen levels to drop below normal (hypoxemia). In most cases of COVID-19, the virus sticks to the upper airways around the throat, triggering an immune response. In rare cases, however, the virus can cross the upper respiratory tract and enter the lungs and alveoli, resulting in ARDS, which usually appears 8 days after the first symptoms appear. Risk factors such as older age, diabetes, and high blood pressure increase the likelihood of having ARDS with COVID-19.

Heart

Underlying heart conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been linked to poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Cardiovascular complications such as myocardial damage, heart failure and arrhythmias have also been associated with poor survival.

In a recent study, researchers detected cardiac abnormalities in 78% of patients with COVID-19, as well as ongoing myocardial inflammation in 60%. Although their heart function appeared to be preserved, elevated levels of the blood enzyme troponin (an indication of heart damage) were identified in 76% of patients. Notably, most people in the study did not require hospitalization.

Kidneys

Even patients who did not have kidney problems before COVID-19 infection have been shown to have kidney failure and tissue destruction after illness. According to some reports, up to 30% of COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals in China and New York had moderate or severe kidney damage. Proteinuria or excess protein in the urine and abnormal blood components are both indicators of kidney failure.

Because the kidneys contain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, they are vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. The virus triggers an immune response that can be aggressive and lead to a cytokine storm that destroys kidney cells.

Liver

Since the liver also contains ACE2 receptors, people with COVID-19 are at risk for liver damage. Some patients with COVID-19 have been shown to have higher levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which are signs of liver damage.

Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who also have a history of cirrhosis (liver tissue damage) or pre-existing liver disease (chronic liver disease) are at higher risk of death.

The nervous system

There has been an increase in the frequency of COVID-19 patients reporting neurological symptoms such as brain inflammation, seizures and hallucinations.

According to a study published in JAMA Neurology by a group of Chinese doctors, more than a third of 214 COVID-19 patients in Wuhan who were hospitalized with severe symptoms had neurological symptoms. The most common symptoms were dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, loss of taste and smell, and skeletal damage. According to the study, the most dangerous symptoms, although rare, were seizures and strokes.

]]>
Dangerous Medicine: The Story Behind Human Hepatitis Experiments – Review | science and nature books https://rogalevich.org/dangerous-medicine-the-story-behind-human-hepatitis-experiments-review-science-and-nature-books/ Sun, 20 Feb 2022 10:30:00 +0000 https://rogalevich.org/dangerous-medicine-the-story-behind-human-hepatitis-experiments-review-science-and-nature-books/ For three decades after World War II, American scientists and physicians conducted a program of research of startling ambition – and jaw-dropping moral neglect. They deliberately infected more than 1,000 people, including at least 100 children, with hepatitis, a disease that can trigger chronic liver disease and cancer. Very few of those who were subjected […]]]>

For three decades after World War II, American scientists and physicians conducted a program of research of startling ambition – and jaw-dropping moral neglect. They deliberately infected more than 1,000 people, including at least 100 children, with hepatitis, a disease that can trigger chronic liver disease and cancer.

Very few of those who were subjected to this experimentation had any great idea of ​​what was being done to them. Many were poor and uneducated and came from prisons, asylums and orphanages. A disproportionate number were black.

“I don’t know of any series of problematic infectious disease studies involving a wider range of devalued and stigmatized groups,” Sydney Halpern tells us in this chilling and callous account of a mass experiment that violated rights and health. underprivileged Americans from 1942 to 1972. .

Subjects included prison inmates, project objectors who were already derided as “yellow bellies” and adults and minors with developmental disabilities. “The use of such a wide range of marginalized groups is staggering,” adds Halpern, an American sociologist and bioethicist.

Hepatitis B virus particles under the microscope. Photograph: Erskine Palmer/AP

The fact that this massive violation of human rights has continued for so long is perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of this story. How could these decades-long trials have been allowed in a society that believed itself to be spared the crimes that had characterized its Nazi opponents?

Halpern struggles to find rational answers to such questions, but ends up struggling to find consistency in the motivations of the scientists involved or to uncover any doubts they may have had about the ethics of their behavior. The nation had enabled the creation of a military-biomedical elite who decided on the need to control disease and defend the nation justified actions that clearly led to the early death of innocent people. Worse, they were largely supported by a deferential and deferential press.

Hepatitis is a disease characterized by liver inflammation, jaundice, fever and exhaustion and is caused, as we now know, by three different virus variants: A, B and C. In some cases, people infected can develop cirrhosis and liver cancer later. the life.

In 1942, a major epidemic occurred among American soldiers. This was attributed to a contaminated batch of yellow fever vaccine whose serum came from hepatitis carriers. Scientists decided to take advantage of these soiled samples and used them to infect men, women and, later, children in an effort to better understand hepatitis.

These studies have expanded over the decades, with researchers persuading their recruits to directly ingest samples of contaminated material. These included milkshakes made from infected human feces mixed with chocolate milk in an attempt to disguise its true contents. “What scientists have done is create a group of hepatitis carriers at risk for slow-simmering, life-threatening liver disease,” Halpern writes. The exact death toll as a direct result of the US hepatitis program is unclear, as its operations were so clandestine. Undoubtedly, there would have been deaths.

All of these dangers were unknown when the hepatitis program began, Halpern acknowledges. Yet even when they became evident, no one bothered to try to track down those who had developed liver disease or identify those who had died as a result of the scientists’ actions.

Ultimately, the curriculum was overturned by the activism of the 1960s. Campaigns against the Vietnam War and for minority rights increased sensitivity to the actions of the authorities, and young doctors began to question the program with increasing vigor. “I moved easily from civil rights to patient rights,” a young doctor told Halpern. The program effectively ended in 1972.

Halpern’s story is chilling, told with commendable clarity and brevity and, most importantly, is of crucial relevance today. The galvanized emergence of Covid-19 calls for the creation of experiments in which volunteers are infected with SARS-CoV-2 to help understand how the disease spreads and behaves. Some of these studies are continuing.

But as she warns, the long-term consequences of the infection are unknown and likely won’t be fully understood for years. “It is therefore vitally important to understand human experiences with dangerous viruses during a previous emergency.” The US hepatitis program has much to teach us in this regard.

dangerous medicine by Sydney Halpern is published by Yale University Press (£25). To support the Guardian and Observer order your copy at guardianbookshop.com. Delivery charges may apply

]]>